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Issue 12, 2019
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Elucidating the reaction kinetics of lithium–sulfur batteries by operando XRD based on an open-hollow S@MnO2 cathode

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Abstract

Quantitatively elucidating the reaction kinetics of Li–sulfur (Li–S) batteries is always crucial in optimizing cathode structures but challenging as well. Herein, we study and compare the reaction mechanism and kinetics of Li–S batteries via operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) and quantitative analysis based on several cathode structures. Operando XRD indicates that β-S8 has different nucleation orientations on MnO2 and carbon surfaces due to the different surface free energies. The quantitative analysis reveals that polysulfides encapsulated in MnO2 nanosheets result in fast Li2S and β-S8 nucleation in the discharge and charge processes, respectively. It also shows that open-hollow S@MnO2 exhibits faster S consumption and higher sulfur utilization than the solid core–shell S@MnO2 and carbon black/S. Our work provides deep insight into the reaction mechanism and kinetics of Li–S batteries and indicates that the cathode structures and host materials play critical roles in enhancing the reaction kinetics.

Graphical abstract: Elucidating the reaction kinetics of lithium–sulfur batteries by operando XRD based on an open-hollow S@MnO2 cathode

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
07 Jan 2019
Accepted
14 Feb 2019
First published
20 Feb 2019

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019,7, 6651-6658
Article type
Communication

Elucidating the reaction kinetics of lithium–sulfur batteries by operando XRD based on an open-hollow S@MnO2 cathode

S. Huang, L. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. Shang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Zheng, O. G. Schmidt and H. Y. Yang, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, 7, 6651
DOI: 10.1039/C9TA00199A

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