Field-induced surface deformation of magnetoactive elastomers with anisometric fillers: a single-particle model
Surface relief of magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) based on soft polymer matrices filled with anisometric magnetically hard fillers is studied theoretically in magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the MAE surface. A single-particle 2D cell model describing the rotation of one individual elliptical particle in a near-surface MAE layer is developed. The equilibrium rotation angle of particles is defined by a balance between Zeeman, magnetic anisotropy and elastic (generated in the polymer matrix) energy increments. The Stoner–Wohlfarth model is used to describe magnetic properties of the filler particles while the elastic energy as a function of the particle rotation angle is evaluated numerically using FEM simulations. A representative surface MAE system is constructed via superposition of single-particle cells with field-driven magnetic particles, and surface relief characteristics are derived for various sets of geometric and statistical parameters. Limitations of the proposed approach have been discussed.