Carbon-based Photocatalysts for Enhanced Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to Solar Fuels
Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into valuable solar fuels has progressively been significant due to its efficiency in concurrently answering global warming and energy crisis issues. Recently, the use of carbon-based photocatalyst has become more popular in the process due to their excellent electrochemical and physicochemical properties. The use of various carbon materials as a support for photocatalyst is highly favorable as it can tune photocatalytic activity in the visible light region and scavenge photogenerated electron from the photocatalyst surface due to its high electrical conductivity. Apart from these highly beneficial effects, they also increase the dispersion of photocatalyst due to its high surface area and also promote CO2 adsorption for enhanced photocatalytic reactions to take place. Graphene, CNT, graphitic carbon nitride and conducting polymers has been used as excellent carbon supports over the years. However, the high recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers, and certain other weaknesses of the pristine carbon, the photoconversion efficiency is too small for its practical use. This review article presents various modifications that are adopted by researchers on carbon-based photocatalysts to improve their photocatalytic performance. Finally, the challenges and prospects or future research over this zone that includes some of their probable limitations have been discussed. It is expected that this review may assist in the development of carbon-based nanomaterials as a highly potential candidate for solar fuel conversion.