Perovskite solar cell resilience to fast neutrons
The high power-per-weight ratio displayed by metal-halide perovskite solar cells is a key advantage of these promising devices for applications that require low payload, such as in space and avionics. However, little is known about the effect of the outer space radiation environment on these devices. Here, we report the first in operando study on fast neutron irradiation of perovskite solar cells. We show the remarkable resilience of these devices against one of the most hazardous forms of radiation that can be found at flight altitude and in space. In particular, our results highlight a comparable in operando degradation pattern between light soaked and light + neutron irradiated devices. However, whereas light-induced degradation is fully reversible, fast neutrons lead to permanent effects likely originating from atomic displacement in the active material. We also propose that such irreversible worsening is alleviated by the formation of neutron-induced shallow traps, which act as dopants and contribute to the increase of open circuit voltage and the decrease of leakage current in light + neutron irradiated devices. The high radiation dose that perovskite-based solar cells can potentially withstand renders these devices highly appealing for space and avionic applications.