Efficient conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using a bifunctional Fe3+ modified Amberlyst-15 catalyst†
In this study, a series of Fe3+ modified Amberlyst-15 resins (Fe/AR) were prepared and used as environmentally friendly bifunctional catalysts for the conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The physicochemical properties of the Fe/AR catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, TG-DTA and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the 10%-Fe/AR catalyst has the ability to synergistically catalyze the isomerization of glucose and the dehydration of fructose in a “one-pot” reaction, and allows an impressive 68% HMF yield to be achieved in the H2O/THF biphasic system. Moreover, the 10%-Fe/AR catalyst still retained the desired catalytic activity after four consecutive cycles.