Ratiometric Fluorescence Imaging of Golgi H2O2 Reveals a Correlation between Golgi Oxidative Stress and Hypertension
Golgi oxidative stress is significantly associated with the occurrence and progression of hypertension. Notably, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is directly proportional to the degree of Golgi oxidative stress. Therefore, based on a novel Golgi-targeting phenylsulfonamide group, we developed a two-photon (TP) fluorescent probe, Np-Golgi, for in situ H2O2 ratiometric imaging in living systems. The phenylsulfonamide moiety effectively assists Np-Golgi in precise location by binding to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, the raw material of phenylsulfonamide is easily available, and chemical modification is easily implemented. By application of Np-Golgi, we explored the generation of endogenous H2O2 during Golgi oxidative stress, and also successfully revealed increase on the levels of Golgi H2O2 in the kidneys of mice with hypertension. This work provides an ideal tool to monitor Golgi oxidative stress for the first time and novel drug targets for the future treatment of hypertension.