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Issue 40, 2019
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Scale-up of microdroplet reactions by heated ultrasonic nebulization

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Abstract

Dramatically higher rates for a variety of chemical reactions have been reported in microdroplets compared with those in the liquid bulk phase. However, the scale-up of microdroplet chemical synthesis has remained a major challenge to the practical application of microdroplet chemistry. Heated ultrasonic nebulization (HUN) was found as a new way for scaling up chemical synthesis in microdroplets. Four reactions were examined, a base-catalyzed Claisen–Schmidt condensation, an oximation reaction from a ketone, a two-phase oxidation reaction without the use of a phase-transfer-catalyst, and an Eschenmoser coupling reaction. These reactions show acceleration of one to three orders of magnitude (122, 23, 6536, and 62) in HUN microdroplets compared to the same reactions in bulk solution. Then, using the present method, the scale-up of the reactions was achieved at an isolated rate of 19 mg min−1 for the product of the Claisen–Schmidt condensation, 21 mg min−1 for the synthesis of benzophenone oxime from benzophenone, 31 mg min−1 for the synthesis of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde from 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol, and 40 mg min−1 for the enaminone product of the Eschenmoser coupling reaction.

Graphical abstract: Scale-up of microdroplet reactions by heated ultrasonic nebulization

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Jul 2019, accepted on 19 Aug 2019 and first published on 19 Aug 2019


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C9SC03701B
Chem. Sci., 2019,10, 9367-9373
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
    All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

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    Scale-up of microdroplet reactions by heated ultrasonic nebulization

    C. Liu, J. Li, H. Chen and Richard N. Zare, Chem. Sci., 2019, 10, 9367
    DOI: 10.1039/C9SC03701B

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

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