Preferential binding of unsaturated hydrocarbons in aryl-bisimidazolium·cucurbituril complexes furbishes evidence for small-molecule π–π interactions†
Whilst cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) have been utilized in gas encapsulation, only the smaller CBn (n = 5 and 6) have utility given their small cavity size. In this work, we demonstrate that the large cavity of CB8 can be tailored for gaseous and volatile hydrocarbon encapsulation by restricting its internal cavity size with auxiliary aryl-bisimidazolium (Bis, aryl = phenyl, naphthyl, and biphenyl) guests. The binding constants for light hydrocarbons (C ≤ 4) are similar to those measured with CB6, while larger values are obtained with Bis·CB8 for larger guests. A clear propensity for higher affinities of alkenes relative to alkanes is observed, most pronounced with the largest delocalized naphthalene residue in the auxiliary Bis guest, which provides unique evidence for sizable small-molecule π–π interactions.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2019 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection