Modular supramolecular dimerization of optically tunable extended aryl viologens
Cucurbituril (CB) mediated assembly of extended aryl viologens (EVs) into optically tunable dimers is reported for the first time. We show that the modular design and synthesis of a new class of π-conjugated viologen derivatives with rigid aromatic or heteroaromatic bridging units as well as electron donating molecular recognition motifs enable their self-assembly into 2 : 2 complexes with CB. The quantitative dimerization process involving these two molecular components in an aqueous solution enables excimer-like interactions between closely packed charged guests giving rise to distinct spectroscopic behavior. The nature of these dimers (CB2·(EV[X]R)2) in the ground and excited states was characterized by NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry, and steady-state spectroscopic measurements.