A review of biomass materials for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries
High energy density and low cost make lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries famous in the field of energy storage systems. However, the advancement of Li–S batteries is evidently hindered by the notorious shuttle effect and other issues that occur in sulfur cathodes during cycles. Among various strategies applied in Li–S batteries, using biomass-derived materials is more promising due to their outstanding advantages including strong physical and chemical adsorptions as well as abundant sources, low cost, and environmental friendliness. This review summarizes the recent progress of biomass-derived materials in Li–S batteries. By focusing on the aspects of carbon hosts, separator materials, bio-polymer binders, and all-solid-state electrolytes, the authors aim to shed light on the rational design and utilization of biomass-derived materials in Li–S batteries with high energy density and long cycle lifespan. Perspectives regarding future research opportunities in biomass-derived materials for Li–S batteries are also discussed.