Efficiency vs. stability: dopant-free hole transporting materials towards stabilized perovskite solar cells
In the last decade, perovskite solar cells have been considered a promising and burgeoning technology for solar energy conversion with a power conversion efficiency currently exceeding 24%. However, although perovskite solar cells have achieved high power conversion efficiency, there are still several challenges limiting their industrial realization. The actual bottleneck for real uptake in the market still remains the cost-ineffective components and instability, to which doping-induced degradation of charge selective layers may contribute significantly. This article overviews the highest performance molecular and polymeric doped and dopant-free HTMs, showing how small changes in the molecular structure such as different atoms and different functional groups and changes in substitution positions or the length of the π-conjugated systems can affect photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of perovskite solar cells.