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Issue 14, 2019
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Toward ideal carbon dioxide functionalization

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This Perspective recapitulates recent developments of carbon dioxide utilization in carbon–carbon bond formation reactions, with an intention of paving a way toward sustainable CO2-functionalization and its tangible applications in synthetic chemistry. CO2 functionalization reactions possess intrinsic drawbacks: the high kinetic inertness and thermodynamic stability of CO2. Numerous procedures for CO2 utilization depend on energy-intensive processes (i.e. high pressure and/or temperature), often solely relying on reactive substrates, hampering its general applications. Recent efforts thus have been dedicated to catalytic CO2-utilization under ambient reaction conditions, however, it is still limited to a few activation modes and the use of reactive substrates. Herein, ideal CO2-functionalization with particular emphasis on sustainability will be discussed based on the following sub-categories; (1) metal-catalyzed ‘reductive’ carboxylation reaction of halides, olefins and allyl alcohols, (2) photochemical CO2-utilization, (3) redox-neutral CO2-functionalization, and (4) enantioselective catalysis incorporating CO2 to form C–CO2 bonds (excluding strain mediated reactions with epoxide- and aziridine-based substrates). Recent progress in these fields will be discussed with the proposed reaction mechanisms and selected examples, highlighting redox-neutral, umpolung, and asymmetric carboxylation to postulate ideal CO2 functionalization reactions to be developed in the near future.

Graphical abstract: Toward ideal carbon dioxide functionalization

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Article information

11 Dec 2018
20 Feb 2019
First published
20 Feb 2019

This article is Open Access
All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Chem. Sci., 2019,10, 3905-3926
Article type

Toward ideal carbon dioxide functionalization

Y. Yang and J. Lee, Chem. Sci., 2019, 10, 3905
DOI: 10.1039/C8SC05539D

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