Dalmanol biosyntheses require coupling of two separate polyketide gene clusters†
Polyketide–polyketide hybrids are unique natural products with promising bioactivity, but the hybridization processes remain poorly understood. Herein, we present that the biosynthetic pathways of two immunosuppressants, dalmanol A and acetodalmanol A, result from an unspecific monooxygenase triggered hybridization of two distinct polyketide (naphthalene and chromane) biosynthetic gene clusters. The orchestration of the functional dimorphism of the polyketide synthase (ChrA) ketoreductase (KR) domain (shortened as ChrA KR) with that of the KR partner (ChrB) in the bioassembly line increases the polyketide diversity and allows the fungal generation of plant chromanes (e.g., noreugenin) and phloroglucinols (e.g., 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone). The simultaneous fungal biosynthesis of 1,3,6,8- and 2-acetyl-1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalenes was addressed as well. Collectively, the work may symbolize a movement in understanding the multiple-gene-cluster involved natural product biosynthesis, and highlights the possible fungal generations of some chromane- and phloroglucinol-based phytochemicals.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Celebrating 100 Years of Chemistry at Nankai University and 2019 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection