High-yielding Pd2(dba)3·C6H6-based four-fold Sonogashira coupling with selenophene-conjugated magnesium tetraethynylporphyrin for organic solar cells†
A catalytic system using Pd2(dba)3·(C6H6)/PPh3/CuI for Sonogashira coupling was demonstrated to synthesize a selenophene-conjugated magnesium tetraethynylporphyrin Mg-TEP-(Se-DPP)4 (2a). The catalytic system enabled four-fold cross-coupling of the four terminal alkynes of magnesium tetraethynylporphyrin with bromoselenophene-tethered diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs) to produce the desired star-shaped 2a in 80% yield. This molecule shows higher solubility in organic solvents, more efficient visible and near-infrared region absorption, and a narrower band gap compared with reference thiophene-conjugated congeners. Two strategies, namely, selenium substitution and end-capping, were investigated to optimize bulk heterojunction structures in the active layers of organic solar cells. The optimized device based on 2a:PC61BM exhibited the highest PCE of 6.09% among the tested devices after solvent vapor annealing, owing to efficient exciton dissociation, balanced carrier mobility, and suppressed carrier recombination in the film's ordered morphology.