Distribution, contents and health risk assessment of heavy metal(loid)s in fish from different water bodies in Northeast China
This study aimed at investigating the accumulation and potential risks of eight metal(loid)s in fish from natural and culturing water samples in Northeast China. Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) contents in 16 fish species (155 samples) and sediments of their habitats were analyzed. In general, the concentrations of these eight metal(loid)s in most fish samples are lower than the guideline levels and legal limits, and the Pb and Hg level in 0.65% of samples were exceeded the quality standards in China. The Cr, As, Cd and Pb levels in most fish samples are less than those reported in previous studies. Nonetheless, Hg levels in these fish samples are significantly higher than those reported in previous studies conducted in other regions. Different from the wild fish, significant positive correlations are found between Cr, Ni, As and Cd concentrations in cultured fish and those in pond sediment (P < 0.05), which might be due to the closed static water environment and concentrated feeding operations. Cu, Zn, As and Hg concentrations differed significantly among wild species, while Cu and Zn concentrations differed significantly among cultured species (P < 0.05), which might be because of the different feeding and foraging habitats. The target hazard quotients (THQs) at high exposure levels of target metal(loid)s in the studied fish were below 1 (except for Hg), and the carcinogenic risk indices of Cr, As, and Cd were less than 10−4. The levels of metal(loid)s (except for Hg) in the studied fishes fell within an acceptable range, but more attention should be paid to the potential carcinogenic risks.