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Issue 30, 2019
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Mesoporous semiconductors combined with up-conversion nanoparticles for enhanced photodynamic therapy under near infrared light

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Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising and effective method for tumor therapy that relies on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photosensitizers at specific wavelengths to inhibit tumor cells. Inorganic semiconductive materials are potential photosensitizers that can excellently absorb ultraviolet light to produce ROS to kill cancer cells. However, this strategy is still limited in terms of practical applications due to the weak penetration of ultraviolet light through biological tissue, as well as the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, largely decreasing ROS generation. In this research, novel PDT agents made with mesoporous lanthanide-semiconductor composites are developed to obtain a remarkable amount of generated ROS under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Due to the larger size (about 120 nm) of the up-conversion material (UCM) used as the substrate, coated with different amounts of semiconductors with mesoporous morphologies, this platform could emit higher blue emission under a 980 nm laser. Meanwhile, both of the semiconductors (SnO2 and TiO2) used have wide absorbance bands in the ultraviolet region, and the ultraviolet fluorescence emitted from the UCM core under NIR laser excitation can be used as the energy donor. Electron transfer processes in SnO2 and TiO2 are generated via the above platforms and produce ROS through photochemical action. Furthermore, the coated semiconductors are mesoporous with larger surface areas (about 302 m2 g−1) and various channels; this is beneficial to obtain enough oxygen to generate more ROS under a hypoxic environment. The PDT efficiency of a typical NaYF4@SnO2 sample is studied using a DPBF detector, in vitro MTT assays, and in vivo tumor inhibition experiments, revealing that this lanthanide-semiconductor platform could be potentially used as a PDT agent under NIR excitation.

Graphical abstract: Mesoporous semiconductors combined with up-conversion nanoparticles for enhanced photodynamic therapy under near infrared light

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
26 Apr 2019
Accepted
20 May 2019
First published
03 Jun 2019

This article is Open Access

RSC Adv., 2019,9, 17273-17280
Article type
Paper

Mesoporous semiconductors combined with up-conversion nanoparticles for enhanced photodynamic therapy under near infrared light

F. Yang, J. Liu, X. Jiang, W. Wu, Z. Wang, Q. Zeng and R. Lv, RSC Adv., 2019, 9, 17273
DOI: 10.1039/C9RA03116B

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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