The use of fractionated Kraft lignin to improve the mechanical and biological properties of PVA-based scaffolds
The mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based scaffolds were successfully improved. The improvements in mechanical properties correlated with the amount of Kraft lignin in PVA matrices. The critical property for any scaffold is its capacity to allow cells to ingrow and survive within its internal structure. The ingrowth of cells was tested using bioreactors creating simulated in vivo conditions. In the context of all the mentioned parameters, the most advantageous properties were exhibited by the scaffold containing 99 wt% PVA and 1 wt% Kraft lignin. The composites with 1 wt% Kraft lignin exhibited sufficient mechanical stability, a lack of cytotoxicity, and mainly the ability to allow the ingrowth of cells into the scaffold in a rotation bioreactor.