Ozone–climate interactions and effects on solar ultraviolet radiation
This report assesses the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and anticipated ozone recovery on the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface. Interactions between changes in ozone and changes in climate, as well as their effects on UV radiation, are also considered. These evaluations focus mainly on new knowledge gained from research conducted during the last four years. Furthermore, drivers of changes in UV radiation other than ozone are discussed and their relative importance is assessed. The most important of these factors, namely clouds, aerosols and surface reflectivity, are related to changes in climate, and some of their effects on short- and long-term variations of UV radiation have already been identified from measurements. Finally, projected future developments in stratospheric ozone, climate, and other factors affecting UV radiation have been used to estimate changes in solar UV radiation from the present to the end of the 21st century. New instruments and methods have been assessed with respect to their ability to provide useful and accurate information for monitoring solar UV radiation at the Earth's surface and for determining relevant exposures of humans. Evidence since the last assessment reconfirms that systematic and accurate long-term measurements of UV radiation and stratospheric ozone are essential for assessing the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and adjustments. Finally, we have assessed aspects of UV radiation related to biological effects and human health, as well as implications for UV radiation from possible solar radiation management (geoengineering) methods to mitigate climate change.
- This article is part of the themed collections: 2019 Perspective article collection and Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: 2018 Assessment