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Synthesis and evaluation of indole derivatives as photosynthesis and plant growth inhibitors

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Abstract

Indole derivatives were synthetized based on the Fischer indole methodology using different phenyl hydrazine hydrochlorides and either cyclohexanone or 2-butanone. The pre- and post-emergent herbicidal activities were evaluated against Ipomoea grandifolia. A carbazole, 6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole (3b), decreased the PIabs parameter by 32% and increased the cross-section related parameters, indicating the inactivation of the reaction center on photosystem II. Compound 3b acts as a post-emergent herbicide prototype since dry biomass was reduced by 50%, corroborating the fluorescence results. Comparing instead with a germination experiment, 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole (3a) was found to be the most effective agent, inhibiting seed germination by 22% and decreasing root length by 50%. The tetrahydrocarbazoles showed better results than indole derivatives potentially due to the presence of methylene groups at structures, which increase the compounds’ lipophilicity and may facilitate their access to the plant. In addition, electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring were found to correlate with increased herbicide activity. Further optimization of this series towards the development of herbicides is ongoing.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis and evaluation of indole derivatives as photosynthesis and plant growth inhibitors

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Publication details

The article was received on 06 Nov 2018, accepted on 12 Mar 2019 and first published on 27 Mar 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8PP00506K
Citation: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2019, Advance Article

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    Synthesis and evaluation of indole derivatives as photosynthesis and plant growth inhibitors

    M. C. D. S. Mendes, B. R. Fazolo, J. M. de Souza, L. G. de Vasconcelos, P. T. de Sousa Junior, E. L. Dall'Oglio, M. A. Soares, O. M. Sampaio and L. C. C. Vieira, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2019, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8PP00506K

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