Optical coherence tomography angiography and photoacoustic imaging in dermatology
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a relatively novel functional extension of the widely accepted ophthalmic imaging tool named optical coherence tomography (OCT). Since OCTA's debut in ophthalmology, researchers have also been trying to expand its translational application in dermatology. The ability of OCTA to resolve microvasculature has shown promising results in imaging skin diseases. Meanwhile, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), which uses laser pulse induced ultrasound waves as the signal, has been studied to differentiate human skin layers and to help in skin disease diagnosis. This perspective article gives a short review of OCTA and PAI in the field of photodermatology. After an introduction to the principles of OCTA and PAI, we describe the most updated results of skin disease imaging using these two optical imaging modalities. We also place emphasis on dual modality imaging combining OCTA and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) for dermatological applications. In the end, the challenges and prospects of these two imaging modalities in dermatology are discussed.