Natural diterpene pyrones: chemistry and biology
Diterpene pyrones (DTPs) are a group of well-known, mainly fungal, natural products, first isolated in 1966. As the name indicates, they are composed of two main structural features: a diterpenyl moiety and a pyrone ring. Various names have been given to this class of metabolites; however, biogenetic evidence indicates that they originate through the same metabolic pathway. Based on their biosynthesis, which leads to differences in their structural architecture, the DTPs can be classified into three main types. In addition to their intriguing chemistry, these compounds demonstrate a wide range of biological activities rendering them a desirable target for total synthesis. To date, sixty-seven DTPs have been isolated from various fungal species, with one example originating from the plant kingdom. This review aims at unifying the classification of these compounds, in addition to presenting a detailed description of their isolation, bioactivities, biosynthesis, and total synthesis.