Heterogeneous Amberlyst-15-catalyzed synthesis of complex hybrid heterocycles containing [1,6]-naphthyridine under metal-free green conditions†
An efficient green protocol for the synthesis of complex hybrid heterocycles containing [1,6]-naphthyridine and coumarin/pyrazole moieties was established, involving an intramolecular [4 + 2] hetero Diels–Alder reaction as the key step. The biologically significant 12,13-dihydro-6H-benzo[h]chromeno[3,4-b][1,6]naphthyridin-6-ones and 6,10-dihydro-5H-benzo[h]pyrazolo[3,4-b][1,6]naphthyridines were synthesized starting from 2-(N-propargylamino)-arylaldehydes and 3-aminocoumarins or 3-methyl-1-aryl-1H-pyrazol-5-amines in the presence of an Amberlyst-15 catalyst in PEG-200 in good yields. The easy access to diverse complex molecules in a single operation from readily available starting materials, a commercially available, transition metal-free and recyclable catalyst, the use of a green solvent, a very high atom economy and the release of water as the only side product are the highlights of this protocol.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Catalysis & biocatalysis in OBC