Hetero-bimetallic cooperative catalysis for the synthesis of heteroarenes
Multi-metallic cooperative catalysis has gained a lot of interest in organic synthesis over the past few years exploring various organic transformations. Of all the myriad chemical transformations, multi-metallic cooperative catalysis offers exceptional chemo-, stereo- and regio-selectivities. In recent years, hetero-multi-metallic catalysis has not only been used to synthesise only simpler organic molecules but rather more complex molecules like heteroarenes which include a variety of commercially important molecules. The current review, in this context, emphasises the synthesis of 5- and 6-membered as well as condensed heteroarenes, covering the literature over the last decade. The discussion focusses on the combinations in cooperative catalytic systems in strategies used to achieve selectivity and also highlights the mode of action for the cooperative catalysis leading to the synthesis of a few commercially and biologically relevant heteroarenes. Finally, the review concludes with a brief outlook on the future scope and opportunities in the field of cooperative catalyses and their prospects for providing state-of-the-art solutions for synthetically challenging organic transformations.