Functional self-assembled nanovesicles based on β-cyclodextrin, liposomes and adamantyl guanidines as potential nonviral gene delivery vectors†
Multicomponent self-assembled supramolecular nanovesicles based on an amphiphilic derivative of β-cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PC-liposomes) functionalized with four structurally different adamantyl guanidines were prepared and characterized. Incorporation efficiency of the examined adamantyl guanidines as well as size and surface charge of the prepared supramolecular nanovesicles was determined. Changes in the surface charge of the prepared nanovesicles confirmed that guanidinium groups were exposed on the surface. ITC and 1H NMR spectroscopy complemented by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to elucidate the structural data and stability of the inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin and adamantyl guanidines (AG1–5). The results are consistent and point to a significant contribution of the guanylhydrazone residue to the complexation process for AG1 and AG2 with β-cyclodextrin. In order to evaluate the potential of the self-assembled supramolecular nanomaterial as a nonviral gene delivery vector, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used. It showed that the prepared nanovesicles functionalized with adamantyl guanidines AG1–4 effectively recognize and bind the fluorescently labelled DNA. Furthermore, gel electrophoretic assay confirmed the formation of nanoplexes of functionalized nanovesicles and plasmid DNA. These findings together suggest that the designed supramolecular nanovesicles could be successfully applied as nonviral gene delivery vectors.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Supramolecular chemistry in OBC