Plasmon enhanced up-conversion nanoparticles in perovskite solar cells for effective utilization of near infrared light†
As an alternative to silicon-based solar cells, organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted much attention and achieved a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE) to silicon-based ones, although the perovskite materials can absorb only visible light. Hence, the challenge remains to enhance the PCE utilizing near infrared (NIR) light in the solar light spectrum. One of the easiest ways to utilize the NIR is to incorporate NIR active materials in PSCs such as up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs); however, such a stratergy is not simple to adopt in PSCs due to the inherent vurnerability of perovskite materials towards moisture. In this work, we present NIR-utilizing PSCs by locating UCNPs within the PSC structure by a simple dry transfer method. A maximum PCE of 15.56% was obtained in the case of PSC having the UCNPs located between the hole transport layer (HTL) and gold (Au) top electrode, which is an 8.4% enhancement compared to the cell without the UCNPs. This enhancement came from the combined effects of NIR light utilization and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon originating from the Au top electrode, which was interfacing the UCNPs.