Thermally reduced fluorographenes as efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors†
There is an urgent need for a simple and up-scalable method for the preparation of supercapacitor electrode materials due to increasing global energy consumption worldwide. We have discovered that fluorographene exhibits great potential for the development of new kinds of supercapacitors aimed at practical applications. We have shown that time control of isothermal reduction of fluorographite at 450 °C under a hydrogen atmosphere led to the fine-tuning of fluorine content and electronic properties of the resulting fluorographene derivatives. Charge transfer resistances (Rct) of the thermally reduced fluorographenes (TRFGs) were decreased with respect to the pristine fluorographene; however, the Rct vs. time-of-reduction plot showed a v-shaped profile. The specific capacitance vs. time-of-reduction of TRFG followed the v-shaped trend, which could be the result of the decreasing content of sp3 carbons and increasing content of structural defects. An optimized material exhibited values of specific capacitance up to 539 F g−1 recorded at a current density of 0.25 A g−1 and excellent cycling durability with 100% specific capacitance retention after 1500 cycles in a three-electrode configuration and 96.7% of specific capacitance after 30 000 cycles in a two-electrode setup.