Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 2, 2020
Previous Article Next Article

Skin irritation potential of graphene-based materials using a non-animal test

Author affiliations

Abstract

Besides inhalation, skin contact may be considered one of the most relevant exposure routes to graphene-based materials (GBMs). However, very few data on the cutaneous toxicity of these materials are available, so far. This study is focused on skin irritation potential of a panel of GBMs: few-layer graphene (FLG), exfoliated by ball milling of graphite, FLG exfoliated by ultrasonication using sodium dodecyl sulfate (FLG-SDS) or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (FLG-SDBS), CVD-graphene, obtained by chemical vapor deposition, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO). Skin irritation was assessed using the SkinEthic™ Reconstructed human Epidermis (RhE), following the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 439. Even though not validated for nanomaterials, the OCED TG 439 turned out to be applicable also for GBM testing, since no interference with the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction, used as a final readout, was found. Furthermore, direct epidermal exposure to powdered GBMs mimics the actual human exposure, avoiding interference by the cell culture medium (protein corona formation). Only GBMs prepared with irritant surfactants (FLG-SDS and FLG-SDBS), but not the others, reduced RhE viability at levels lower than those predicting skin irritation (≤50%), suggesting irritant properties. This result was further confirmed by measuring cytokine (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8) release by GBM-treated RhE and by histological analysis as additional readouts to implement the guideline. On the whole, these results demonstrate that GBMs prepared with non-irritant exfoliation agents do not induce skin irritation after a single acute exposure.

Graphical abstract: Skin irritation potential of graphene-based materials using a non-animal test

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
08 Aug 2019
Accepted
08 Nov 2019
First published
27 Nov 2019

This article is Open Access

Nanoscale, 2020,12, 610-622
Article type
Paper

Skin irritation potential of graphene-based materials using a non-animal test

L. Fusco, M. Garrido, C. Martín, S. Sosa, C. Ponti, A. Centeno, B. Alonso, A. Zurutuza, E. Vázquez, A. Tubaro, M. Prato and M. Pelin, Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 610
DOI: 10.1039/C9NR06815E

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

  • For reproduction of material from NJC:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
    [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
  • For reproduction of material from PPS:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements