Improvement in the quality of black phosphorus by selecting a mineralizer†
The low-cost synthesis of high-quality black phosphorus (BP) has always been a challenge. Herein, we selected different mineralizers to synthesize high-crystallinity BP by the chemical vapor transport (CVT) method and demonstrated that the use of Pb instead of Sn can lead to higher purity BP. Residual Sn in Sn-BP was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), but no mineralizer impurity was observed in Pb-BP. The performance of FET devices showed that the hole mobility of Pb-BP was significantly higher than that of Sn-BP. On the other hand, the Pb-BP devices exhibited good bipolarity with the highest hole mobility of 523 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature and electron mobility of up to 28 cm2 V−1 s−1.