Probing the Dynamic Evolution of Lithium Dendrites: A Review of the In-situ/Operando Characterizations for the Lithium Metallic Batteries
During the operation of lithium metal batteries, the direct observation of the evolving characteristics of the deposited lithium is rather challenging in consideration of the requirements for the fast-tracking and high spatial resolution of the signals within the native organic electrolyte. However, the weak scattering of the electrons and x-rays with low-atom-number lithium deteriorates the spectral resolution of the signals. Therefore, this mini-review compares various influencing factors that determine the lithium nucleation process based on the electrochemical performance evaluations, including artificial protective layer, electrolyte formulation, lithiophilic sites and hierarchies of the substrate; additionally, the possibility of the dynamic observations of chemical, electronic, and geometric changes during the metallic battery operations is exhibited. For each category of the technique, a brief account of the advances of the characterizing equipment is followed with the novel cell designs. Finally, the prospects that advance the precise description of the lithium nucleation process are summarized. This mini-review highlights the mitigating strategies of the lithium dendrites from the molecule, electrode, and device levels, and summarizes the state-of-the-art in-operando techniques, thereby promoting the future design of the metallic battery systems.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles