Synthesis of low- and high-index faceted metal (Pt, Pd, Ru, Ir, Rh) nanoparticles for improved activity and stability in electrocatalysis
Driven by the quest for future energy solution, faceted metal nanoparticles are being pursued as the next generation electrocatalysts for renewable energy applications. Thanks to recent advancement in solution phase synthesis, different low- and high-index facets on metal nanocrystals become accessible and are tested for specific electrocatalytic reactions. This minireview summarises the key approaches to prepare nanocrystals containing the most catalytically active platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Ru, Ir and Rh) exposed with low- and high-index facets using solution phase synthesis. Electrocatalytic studies related to the different facets are highlighted to emphasise the importance of exposing facets for catalysing these reactions, namely oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), alcohol oxidation including methanol (MOR) and ethanol oxidation reactions (EOR), formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The future outlook discusses the challenges and opportunities for making electrocatalysts that are even more active and stable.