Recent advances in nanoparticulate biomimetic catalysts for combating bacteria and biofilms
Due to the abuse of antibiotics and the tendency of bacteria to form protective biofilms, the design and development of new efficient agents that can eliminate bacteria and biofilms are still highly desired but remain a great challenge; on the other hand, natural enzymes with unique catalytic characteristics can cause an irreversible damage to the bacteria without inducing drug-resistance in the bacteria. However, the intrinsic drawbacks, such as insufficient stability and high purification cost, of enzymes significantly limit their antimicrobial applications. Therefore, significant research efforts have been devoted towards the development of quality-equivalent or even superior enzyme substitutes with low cost and high stability. In this regard, nanomaterials with extraordinary enzyme-mimetic catalytic activities (termed as nanozymes) are considered as suitable candidates. To date, nanozymes have been proved to be promising materials for combating bacteria and biofilms under mild conditions. In this review, we have summarized the recent progress of nanozymes in this highly active field. The antibacterial mechanisms of nanozymes and the roles of their sizes, morphologies, compositions, surface modifications and microenvironment on their overall performance have been discussed. Moreover, the current challenges and prospects in this research area have been discussed. We believe that nanozymes with unique features and functions can provide a wealth of opportunities via their clinical and industrial applications.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles