Metal and metal oxide nanozymes: bioenzymatic characteristic, catalytic mechanism, and eco-environmental applications
Phenolic contaminants (R‒OH) are a category of high-toxic organic compounds widespread in aquatic ecosystems with induced carcinogenic risks in wildlife and human. Natural enzymes as green catalysts are capable of step-polymerizing such compounds to produce diverse macromolecular self-coupling products via radical-mediated C‒C and C‒O‒C bonds at either the ortho- or para-carbon position, therefore evading their bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Intriguingly, certain artificial metal and metal oxide nanomaterials are known as nanozymes, they not only possess the unique properties of nanomaterials but also display the intrinsic enzyme-mimicking activities. These artificial nanozymes are expected to surmount the shortcomings of natural enzymes such as low stability, easy inactivation, hard-to-recycling, and high cost, thus contributing to eco-environmental restoration. This review highlights the available literature in the enzymatic characteristic and catalytic mechanism of natural enzymes and artificial metal and metal oxide nanozymes in removing and transforming R‒OH. The advances will provide key research directions beneficial to the multifunctional applications of artificial nanozymes in aquatic ecosystems.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles