Remote and real time control of an FVIO–enzyme hybrid nanocatalyst using magnetic stimulation
Remote modulation of nanoscale biochemical processes in a living system using magnetic stimulation is appealing but is restricted by the lack of a highly efficient nanomediator which can deliver timely and effective response to biological molecules under an external magnetic field. Herein, we report the development of a novel nanocatalyst based on a ferrimagnetic vortex-domain nanoring (FVIO)–enzyme hybrid that enables real-time modulation of enzymatic catalysis under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The role of the FVIO is to provide localized heating immediately upon exposure to an AMF, which efficiently and selectively promotes the activity of conjugated enzymes on the surface. The reaction rate of the as-fabricated FVIO–β-Gal hybrid was shown to be boosted up to 180% of its initial value by localized heat generated under an AMF of 550 Oe in less than 2 s and without heating up the bulk solution. Moreover, the degree of activity acceleration was shown to be tunable by increasing the strength of the AMF. The concept of remote magnetic stimulation of enzymatic reactions has been further applied to other enzymes (e.g. FVIO–KPC and FVIO–GOx), demonstrating the general applicability of this strategy. Since almost all metabolic processes in cells rely on enzymatic catalysis to sustain life, the FVIO–enzyme system developed in this work provides a valuable nanoplatform for spatiotemporally manipulating biochemical reactions, which might pave the way for future remote manipulation of living organisms.