Light emission driven by magnetic and electric toroidal dipole resonances in a silicon metasurface
Dielectric nanoparticles supporting pronounced toroidal and anapole resonances have enabled a new class of optical antennas with unprecedented functionalities. In this work, we propose a light-emitting silicon metasurface which simultaneously supports both magnetic toroidal dipole and electric toroidal dipole resonances in the near-infrared region. The metasurface consists of a square array of split nanodisks with embedded germanium quantum dots. By varying the width of the split air-gap, the spectral positions and quality factors of the two toroidal dipoles are flexibly tuned. Large photoluminescence enhancement is experimentally demonstrated at the toroidal resonances, which is attributed to the unique near- and far-field characteristics of the resonant modes. Moreover, the light emissions driven by the two toroidal dipoles are of different polarization, which further suggests versatile polarization-engineered radiation properties. Our work shows enormous potential in light emission manipulation and provides a route for high-efficiency, ultra-compact LEDs and potentially functional dielectric metasurface lasers.