Hybrid vesicles as intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generators†
Artificial organelles are envisioned as nanosized assemblies with intracellular biocatalytic activity to provide the host cells with non-native or missing/lost function. Hybrid vesicles loaded with glucose oxidase (NRGOx) or β-galactosidase (NRβ-Gal) and equipped with lysosomal escape ability are assembled using phospholipids and the block copolymer poly(cholesteryl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate). The co-localization of the building blocks and the catalytic activity of NRGOx and NRβ-Gal are illustrated. The intracellular activity of the nanoreactors in RAW 264.7 macrophages is confirmed by an enhanced reduction in viability for cells pre-incubated with NRGOx in the presence of glucose due to the generation of cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide compared to the controls. In addition, RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary human macrophages equipped with NRβ-Gal are able to intracellularly convert β-Gal-NONOate into nitric oxide. The successful use of these hybrid vesicles to equip host macrophages with additional catalytic activity diversifies the available toolbox of nanocarriers with envisioned application in cell mimicry.