Simple fabrication of layered halide perovskite platelets and enhanced photoluminescence from mechanically exfoliated flakes†
Rapid progress on the fabrication of lead halide perovskite crystals has led to highly promising performance in optoelectronic devices, particularly from three-dimensional crystals. Recently, these efforts have been extended to layered perovskite structures, motivated in part by their good environmental stability. Furthermore, layered perovskites represent a nanocrystal system with micron-size extensions and strong confinement in one dimension that is highly appealing for studying fundamental photophysics. Here, we report a facile route for the growth of single-layered perovskite platelets, which is demonstrated using four different organic cations acting as spacers, providing a layer interdistance from approx. 1.3 nm to 2.4 nm. The resulting ensembles of platelets exhibit a strong emission band in the deep blue spectral region characterized by two emission peaks and a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) up to 15%. Thin 2D layered perovskite flakes can be readily obtained by mechanical exfoliation, and their emission shows a PLQY as high as 42%, which can be related to reduced reabsorption in the exfoliated crystals. Furthermore, the low energy peak that was observed in the double peak emission from the platelet ensembles is suppressed in the exfoliated flakes. Therefore, the exfoliated flakes manifest a more colour-pure blue emission with strongly increased radiative rate as compared to the dried platelet aggregates obtained directly from the synthesis. The straightforward fabrication strategy that employs solely polar solvents with low environmental impact provides a highly appealing route towards two-dimensional perovskite systems with bright and stable emission in the blue spectral range.