Translocation, biotransformation-related degradation, and toxicity assessment of polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified 2H-phase nano-MoS2†
Nano-MoS2 has been extensively investigated in materials science and biomedicine. However, the effects of different methods of exposure on their translocation, biosafety, and biotransformation-related degradability remain unclear. In this study, we combined the advantages of synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and high-resolution single-cell SR transmission X-ray microscopy (SR-TXM) with traditional analytical techniques to investigate translocation, precise degraded species/ratio, and correlation between the degradation and toxicity levels of polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified 2H-phase MoS2 nanosheets (MoS2-PVP NSs). These NSs demonstrated different biodegradability levels in biomicroenvironments with H2O2, catalase, and human myeloperoxidase (hMPO) (H2O2 < catalase < hMPO). The effects of NSs and their biodegraded byproducts on cell viability and 3D translocation at the single-cell level were also assessed. Toxicity and translocation in mice via intravenous (i.v.), intraperitoneal (i.p.), and intragastric (i.g.) administration routes guided by fluorescence (FL) imaging were investigated within the tested dosage. After i.g. administration, NSs accumulated in the gastrointestinal organs and were excreted from feces within 48 h. After i.v. injection, NSs showed noticeable clearance due to their decreased accumulation in the liver and spleen within 30 days when compared with that in the i.p. group, which exhibited slight accumulation in the spleen. This work paves the way for understanding the biological behaviors of nano-MoS2 using SR techniques that provide more opportunities for future applications.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2019 Nanoscale HOT Article Collection