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Aggregation control of Ru and Ir nanoparticles by tunable aryl alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids

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Abstract

Metal-nanoparticles (M-NPs) were synthesized in a wet-chemical synthesis route in tunable aryl alkyl ionic liquids (TAAILs) based on the 1-aryl-3-alkyl-substituted imidazolium motif from Ru3(CO)12 and Ir4(CO)12 by microwave-heating induced thermal decomposition. The size and size dispersion of the NPs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to an average diameter of 2.2(±0.1) to 3.9(±0.3) nm for Ru-NPs and to an average diameter of 1.4(±0.1) to 2.4(±0.1) nm for Ir-NPs. The TAAILs used contain the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion but differ in the substituents on the 1-aryl ring, e.g. 2-methyl-, 4-methoxy- and 2,4-dimethyl groups and in the 3-alkyl chain lengths (C4H9, C5H11, C8H17, C9H19, C11H23). All used TAAILs are suitable for the stabilization of Ru- and Ir-NPs over months in the IL dispersion. Different from all other investigations on M-NP/IL systems which we are aware of the particle separation properties of the TAAILs vary strongly as a function of the aryl substituent. Good NP separation can be achieved with the 4-methoxyphenyl- and 2,4-dimethylphenyl-substituted ILs, irrespective of the 3-alkyl chain lengths. Significant aggregation can be observed for 2-methylphenyl-substituted ILs. The good NP separation can be correlated with a negative electrostatic potential at the 4-methoxyphenyl or 4-methylphenyl substituent that is in the para-position of the aryl ring, whereas the 2-(ortho-)methylphenyl group assumes no negative potential. ε-ePC-SAFT calculations were used to validate that the interactions between ILs and the washing agents (required for TEM analyses) do not cause the observed aggregation/separation behaviour of the M-NPs. Ru-NPs were investigated as catalysts for the solvent-free hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane under mild conditions (70 °C, 10 bar) with activities up to 760 (mol cyclohexane) (mol Ru)−1 h−1 and over 95% conversion in ten consecutive runs for Ru-NPs. No significant loss of catalytic activity could be observed.

Graphical abstract: Aggregation control of Ru and Ir nanoparticles by tunable aryl alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Dec 2018, accepted on 08 Feb 2019 and first published on 11 Feb 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8NR10286D
Citation: Nanoscale, 2019, Advance Article

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    Aggregation control of Ru and Ir nanoparticles by tunable aryl alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids

    L. Schmolke, S. Lerch, M. Bülow, M. Siebels, A. Schmitz, J. Thomas, G. Dehm, C. Held, T. Strassner and C. Janiak, Nanoscale, 2019, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8NR10286D

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