Gated graphene island-enabled tunable charge transfer plasmon terahertz metamodulator†
Graphene-enhanced optoelectronic terahertz (THz) signal processing offers an exquisite potential for tailoring extreme-subwavelength platforms to develop tunable and highly-responsive photonic tools. In this study, we propose a hybrid graphene island-mediated THz metadevice to support tunable charge transfer plasmon (CTP) resonances. We show that bias variations in the gated graphene significantly change the metadevice transmittance at the CTP frequency, while the capacitive dipolar mode remains unchanged. Our numerical and experimental studies show that tuning the conductivity of the graphene islands between a cluster of metallic blocks provides an active and exotic control over the charge transition across the assembly. To experimentally prove the viability of our concept in a practical photonic application, we utilized the presented tunable system as a high modulation-depth THz modulator. This enabled us to facilitate a THz modulation speed of 19 μs and 21 μs for rising and falling durations, respectively, with a modulation depth of 72%.