Viral nanoparticles can elude protein barriers: exploiting rather than imitating nature†
Protein-corona formation in body fluids and/or entrapment of nanoparticles in protein matrices (e.g. food and mucus) can hinder the delivery of nanoparticles, irrespective of the route of administration. Here we demonstrate that certain viral nanoparticles (VNPs) can evade the adhesion of a broad panel of macromolecules from several biological milieus. We also show that the permeability of VNPs through mucin gels is far superior to that of synthetic nanoparticles. The non-sticky nature of VNPs implies that they will be able to readily cross most non-specific protein and glycoprotein barriers encountered, ubiquitously, upon administration through mucosal, and non-mucosal routes.