Piperazic acid-containing natural products: structures and biosynthesis
Covering: up to the end of 2018
Piperazic acid is a cyclic hydrazine and a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in diverse non-ribosomal peptide (NRP) and hybrid NRP–polyketide (PK) structures. Piperazic acid was first identified as a residue in the monamycins in 1959. Since then, the piperazic acid residue has been found in >30 families of natural products, representing >140 compounds. Many of these compounds have potent biological activity, ranging from anti-malarial to anti-apoptotic to anti-bacterial activity, although high toxicity often accompanies this potent biological activity. Recently, we identified a piperazate synthase, responsible for N–N bond formation to give piperazic acid. Here, we review piperazic acid-containing natural products discovered from 1959 to 2018, with an emphasis on the biosynthetic routes to these natural products.