Synthesis and characterization of γ-Fe2O3@SiO2-(CH2)3-PDTC-Pd magnetic nanoparticles: new and highly active catalyst for the Heck/Sonogashira coupling reactions
In this research, the synthesis and characterization of a novel catalyst is reported based on the preparation of Pd complex of (pyridin-2-ylmethyl)dithiocarbamate (PDTC) supported on γ- Fe2O3@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3@SiO2-(CH2)3-PDTC-Pd). The catalyst is characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometer measurements. The catalytic performance of γ-Fe2O3@SiO2-(CH2)3-PDTC-Pd was evaluated in the Heck/Sonogashira coupling reactions of various aryl halides with various alkenes/phenylacetylene in water, respectively. The synthesized nanocatalyst showed a high catalytic activity even in very small amounts (5 mg, less than 0.1 mol%), was easily separated using magnetic decantation and was reused for ten cycles without any appreciable loss of its reactivity.