State-of-the-art Iron-based Nanozyme for Biocatalytic Tumor Therapy
Biocatalytic tumor therapy with artificial nanoscale enzyme-mimics (nanozyme) is an emerging technology for the therapeutic intervention of a variety of malignant indications, which could provide the combined benefit of enzyme-dependent biocatalytic activities and nanotechnology. From a general perspective, these novel nanocatalysts usually employ particular multivalent ions as the catalytic center, and have demonstrated high catalytic efficiency even more potent than natural enzymes while also offering better in vivo stability, functional versatility and lower manufacturing cost. It’s well established that malignant tumor is a disease with many enzymatic mutations, which provides ample opportunities for the development of biocatalytic tumor therapy with nanozymes. Most of the current research input in this area is revolved around iron-based nanostructures due to their easy manufacturing, intrinsic biocompatibility, promising physical properties as well as the versatile and efficient catalytic activity. A great variety of studies in recent decade have consistently demonstrated the translational potential of iron-based nanozyme for tumor therapy. Therefore, we anticipate it would be of great practical significance to summarize the previous reports on the treatment-facilitative effects and tumor cell damaging mechanisms via iron-based nanozymes, which primarily include tumor hypoxia amelioration, Fenton-enhanced ROS damage and the activation of ferroptosis pathway. Additionally, we will also discuss those critical issues that may affecting their clinical translation and future development. We hope that these iron-based nanozymes could overcome the limitations of conventional therapies and open new avenues for tumor treatment.