Recent advances of bioinspired functional materials with specific wettability: from nature and beyond nature
Through 3.7 billion years of evolution and natural selection, plants and animals in nature have ingeniously fulfilled a broad range of fascinating functions to achieve optimized performance in responding and adapting to changes in the process of interacting with complex natural environments. It is clear that the hierarchically organized micro/nanostructures of the surfaces of living organisms decisively manage fascinating and amazing functions, regardless of the chemical components of their building blocks. This conclusion now allows us to elucidate the underlying mechanisms whereby these hierarchical structures have a great impact on the properties of the bulk material. In this review, we mainly focus on advances over the last three years in bioinspired multiscale functional materials with specific wettability. Starting from selected naturally occurring surfaces, manmade bioinspired surfaces with specific wettability are introduced, with an emphasis on the cooperation between structural characteristics and macroscopic properties, including lotus leaf-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces, fish scale-inspired superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic surfaces, springtail-inspired superoleophobic surfaces, and Nepenthes (pitcher plant)-inspired slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs), as well as other multifunctional surfaces that combine specific wettability with mechanical properties, optical properties and the unidirectional transport of liquid droplets. Afterwards, various top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques are presented, as well as emerging cutting-edge applications. Finally, our personal perspectives and conclusions with regard to the transfer of micro- and nanostructures to engineered materials are provided.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Recent Review Articles, Winners of the 2019 Horizons Outstanding Paper awards and Nanoscale Horizons Most Popular Articles