Wrinkling of two-dimensional materials: methods, properties and applications
Recently, two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene, its derivatives, metal films, MXenes and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have been widely studied because of their tunable electronic structures and special electrical and optical properties. However, during the fabrication of these 2D materials with atomic thickness, formation of wrinkles or folds is unavoidable to enable their stable existence. Meaningfully, it is found that wrinkled structures simultaneously impose positive changes on the 2D materials. Specifically, the architecture of wrinkled structures in 2D materials additionally induces excellent properties, which are of great importance for their practical applications. In this review, we provide an overview of categories of 2D materials, which contains formation and fabrication methods of wrinkled patterns and relevant mechanisms, as well as the induced mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties. Furthermore, these properties are modifiable by controlling the surface topography or even by dynamically stretching the 2D materials. Wrinkling offers a platform for 2D materials to be applied in some promising fields such as field emitters, energy containers and suppliers, field effect transistors, hydrophobic surfaces, sensors for flexible electronics and artificial intelligence. Finally, the opportunities and challenges of wrinkled 2D materials in the near future are discussed.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles