Metal oxide-based supercapacitors: progress and prospectives
Distinguished by particular physical and chemical properties, metal oxide materials have been a focus of research and exploitation for applications in energy storage devices. Used as supercapacitor electrode materials, metal oxides have certified attractive performances for fabricating various supercapacitor devices in a broad voltage window. In comparison with single metal oxides, bimetallic oxide materials are highly desired for overcoming the constraint of the poor electric conductivity of single metal oxide materials, achieving a high capacitance and raising the energy density at this capacitor-level power. Herein, we investigate the principal elements affecting the properties of bimetallic oxide electrodes to reveal the relevant energy storage mechanisms. Thus, the influences of the chemical constitution, structural features, electroconductivity, oxygen vacancies and various electrolytes in the electrochemical behavior are discussed. Moreover, the progress, development and improvement of multifarious devices are emphasized systematically, covering from an asymmetric to hybrid configuration, and from aqueous to non-aqueous systems. Ultimately, some obstinate and unsettled issues are summarized as well as a prospective direction has been given on the future of metal oxide-based supercapacitors.