Preparation and characterization of 0D Au NPs@3D BiOI nanoflower/2D NiO nanosheet array heterostructures and their application as a self-powered photoelectrochemical biosensing platform†
In this work, we demonstrate that zero-dimensional Au nanoparticles (0D Au NPs)-decorated three-dimensional bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) nanoflower (3D BiOI NFs)/two-dimensional nickel oxide (NiO) nanosheet array (2D NiO NSAs) hybrid nanostructures can be used as a self-powered cathodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensing platform. The in situ formation of 3D BiOI NFs on 2D NiO NSAs was carried out by a chemical bath deposition method, while 0D Au NPs were coated on 3D BiOI NFs/2D NiO NSAs through a dip-coating method. Subsequently, glucose oxidase (GOD) as an enzyme model was immobilized on the surface of a Au@BiOI/NiO electrode via the adhesion of poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The proposed heterostructure exhibited excellent PEC properties because the unique structure of the Au NPs@BiOI NFs/NiO NSAs increased the specific surface area, light harvesting ability and the surface plasmon resonance effect of the Au NPs. The system displayed high sensitivity toward glucose in the presence of an air-saturated electrolyte. At the optimum conditions, the biosensor showed a promising application for the self-powered cathodic PEC biosensing of glucose, with a dynamic linear range of 1 × 10−7 M to 5 × 10−2 M and a low limit of detection of 8.71 × 10−8 M. Moreover, the proposed self-powered PEC biosensor was evaluated for the determination of diluted glucose injections, with the results indicating the potential of the proposed biosensor for bioanalysis applications.