Nanomaterial based aptasensors for clinical and environmental diagnostic applications
Nanomaterials have been exploited extensively to fabricate various biosensors for clinical diagnostics and food & environmental monitoring. These materials in conjugation with highly specific aptamers (next-gen antibody mimics) have enhanced the selectivity, sensitivity and rapidness of the developed aptasensors for numerous targets ranging from small molecules such as heavy metal ions to complex matrices containing large entities like cells. In this review, we highlight the recent advancements in nanomaterial based aptasensors from the past five years also including the basics of conventionally used detection methodologies that paved the way for futuristic sensing techniques. The aptasensors have been categorised based upon these detection techniques and their modifications viz., colorimetric, fluorometric, Raman spectroscopy, electro-chemiluminescence, voltammetric, impedimetric and mechanical force-based sensing of a multitude of targets are discussed in detail. The bio-interaction of these numerous nanomaterials with the aptameric component and that of the complete aptasensor with the target have been studied in great depth. This review thus acts as a compendium for nanomaterial based aptasensors and their applications in the field of clinical and environmental diagnosis.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles