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Issue 12, 2019
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Carbon nanotube and graphene fiber artificial muscles

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Abstract

Actuator materials capable of producing a rotational or tensile motion are rare and, yet, rotary systems are extensively utilized in mechanical systems like electric motors, pumps, turbines and compressors. Rotating elements of such machines can be rather complex and, therefore, difficult to miniaturize. Rotating action at the microscale, or even nanoscale, would benefit from the direct generation of torsion from an actuator material. Herein we discuss the advantages of using carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns and/or graphene (G) fibers as novel artificial muscles that have the ability to be driven by the electrochemical charging of helically wound multiwall carbon nanotubes or graphene fibers as well as elements in the ambient environment such as moisture to generate such rotational action. The torsional strain, torque, speed and lifetime have been evaluated under various electrochemical conditions to provide insight into the actuation mechanism and performance. Here the most recent advances in artificial muscles based on sheath-run artificial muscles (SRAMs) are reviewed. Finally, the rotating motion of the CNT yarn actuator and the humidity-responsive twisted graphene fibers have been coupled to a mixer for use in a prototype microfluidic system, moisture management and a humidity switch respectively.

Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotube and graphene fiber artificial muscles

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Article information


Submitted
22 Jan 2019
Accepted
29 Oct 2019
First published
30 Oct 2019

This article is Open Access

Nanoscale Adv., 2019,1, 4592-4614
Article type
Review Article

Carbon nanotube and graphene fiber artificial muscles

J. Foroughi and G. Spinks, Nanoscale Adv., 2019, 1, 4592
DOI: 10.1039/C9NA00038K

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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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