Gas sensors using ordered macroporous oxide nanostructures
Detection and monitoring of harmful and toxic gases have gained increased interest in relation to worldwide environmental issues. Semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been considered promising for the facile remote detection of gases and vapors over the past decades. However, their sensing performance is still a challenge to meet the demands for practical applications where excellent sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and response/recovery rate are imperative. Therefore, sensing materials with novel architectures and fabrication processes have been pursued with a flurry of research activity. In particular, the preparation of ordered macroporous metal oxide nanostructures is regarded as an intriguing candidate wherein ordered aperture sizes in the range from 50 nm to 1.5 μm can increase the chemical diffusion rate and considerably strengthen the performance stability and repeatability. This review highlights the recent advances in the fabrication of ordered macroporous nanostructures with different dimensions and compositions, discusses the sensing behavior evolution governed by structural layouts, hierarchy, doping, and heterojunctions, as well as considering their general principles and future prospects. This would provide a clear scale for others to tune the sensing performance of porous materials in terms of specific components and structural designs.